"Success is not final, failure is not fatal: it is the courage to continue that counts."
Winston Churchill

Descendents of Prophet(s)


Descendents of the Prophet


1.Children:

The Prophet had seven children, 3 of whom died in infancy. When his sons passed away in Makkah, Surah Kausar was revealed to comfort the Prophet, since all his sons did not live long, your syllabus primarily requires you to have brief knowledge of his 4 surviving daughters.

a.Hazrat Zainab:

● Eldest daughter
● 2nd child after Qasim
● Mother to maternal cousin, Abul Aas
● She converted to Islam but he didn’t
● He fought against the Muslims in Battle of Badr and was taken as captive
● When he was ransomed, the Prophet requested Zainab to come to medina (before this she was living in Makkah)
● She bought along her daughter Umama
● Umama was later married to Hazrat Ali
● 3 years later Hazrat Zainab’s husband converted to Islam too and came to medina
●  She died in 8 AH

b.Hazrat Umme-Kulsoom:

● 2nd daughter
● Married to son of Prophet’s uncle
● Marriage  was broken after revelation of Surah Lahab
● Migrated to Medina with Hazrat Sawdah
● Remained at home until Hazrat Usman married her in 3 Ah
● Died in 9 AH while her father and husband were at the Tabuk Expedition

c.Hazrat Ruqqaya:

● 3rd daughter
● Married to Abu Lahab’s son
●Marriage ended after the Prophet started preaching Islam
● Married then to Hazrat Usman
●Migrated with him to Abyssinia and returned when ban was lifted
●She was amongst the muslims who were instructed to migrate to Medina before the Prophet himself left
● Died in  2 AH while Prophet was at Battle of Badr

d.Hazrat Fatima:

● 4th daughter
● Born in Makkah in 605 AD
● Travelled to Medina with Hazrat Sawdah when Prophet called them
● Married to Hazrat Ali in 2 AH
● Lived in a small house near the Mosque of the Prophet
●Like other emigrants, the couple experienced much poverty
● In 3 AH, she gave birth to her first son, whom Prophet named Hassan, the beautiful    one.
● In 4 AH, she gave birth to her 2nd son, whom Prophet named Hussain, the little beautiful one
● She had two daughters, Umme-Kulsoom and Zainab
● Prophet had special affection for her
● She was often near him in his stressful moments
● Washed his head when Makkans threw dirt on him
●Washed his clothes when Abu Lahab threw entrails of camel on the Prophet while praying
● Tended to his wounds after Uhad
● Prophet said:  “you are the highest of the women of the people of paradise, except for Maryam, daughter of Imran”
● Prophet gave his chair to her sit on when she visited him in his last days
● In his last days, the Prophet told him that she would be first of his family to follow him
● Likewise, she died in 11 AH, 6 months after Prophet’s death



2.Grandsons:



a.Hazrat Hasan:

● Born in 3 AH in Medina
● Prophet named him the beautiful one
● He used to climb on the Prophet’s back when the Prophet was prostrating in prayer
● Prophet interrupted his sermon once to come down and puck Hazrat Hasan when he fell down
●  Hazrat Hasan used to take water to Hazrat Usman when he was besieged in 35 AH
●Sent to Kufa, during Hazrat Ali’s caliphate to seek reinforcements in battle of Camel
● Fought in battle of Siffin along with father
● Supporters claimed caliph after father’s death in 40 AH
●Muawiya, governor of Syria, rejected his claim and moved forces against him
● Hasan reacted slowly as he did not want fights between the Muslims
● Desertions to Muawiya’s side made him weaker
● Finally he renounced caliphate after less than a year
● Settled in Medina and died in 50 AH
● Poisoned by wife, Jada, who was enticed by Muawiya on promises of money
● He is buried in Medina
● Regarded by Shias as 2nd Imam

b.Hazrat Hussain:

● Born in 4 AH in Medina
● Great joy for grandfather
● Prophet took him on his knees and carried him on his back
● Loyal supporter of father
●Reluctant to accept Hazrat Hassan’s renunciation of caliphate
● Though he knew that Muawiya was too strong to resist
● Refused to accept Muawiya’s son, Yazid, as caliph
●People of Kufa invited him to lead an uprising against Ummayads
● Sent cousin, Muslim, to see the situation
●Muslim saw Kufan support and sent a letter to Hazrat Husain, telling him to come
●After dispatching the letter, Muslims was captured by governor of Basra and killed
● Strict measures were taken against Husain’s supporters in Kufa
●Meanwhile, Hazrat Husain left Medina for Makkah in Rajab 59 AH
● Sensing trouble during hajj, he set out from Makkah with members of his family and close supporters on 8th Dhul Hajj 59 AH
●  Muslims advised him against this and people he met on his way cautioned him
●  But he was not to be turned aside
●  His will strengthened when he heard that his supporters had been killed in Makkah and troops had been sent against him
●  On 2nd Muharram, 60 AH he camped at Karbala, a desert near Kufa
●  The next day, the Ummayad army surrounded the camp and prevented anyone from taking water from river Euphrates
● Negotiations took place for some days, but failed
● Battle began with 72 people of Husain and 4000 Ummayad troops on 10 Muharam 60 AH
● Initially there were small skirmishes and the army did not attack with force
● Gradually, Hussain’s supporters were killed one by one
● His camp was set on fire
● When a handful of supporters were left they went to the river to get water but were surrounded
●  Hazrat Husain resisted but was struck down due to being outnumbered
●  His head was cut off and taken to Ubaydullah Ibn Ziyad, governor of Kufa and then to caliph Yazid at Damascus
● His body was buried at Karbala, modern day southern Iraq

3.Imams:

In this section, all you need to know is the name of the 12 Imams along with brief biographical accounts of the first 3 and the last. Hazrat Ali has been discussed in detail in the next lecture. Hazrat Hasan and Husain we just did quite comprehensively and Hazrat Mehdi’s is mentioned below.

a. Hazrat Ali
b. Hazrat Hasan
c. Hazrat Hussain
d. Hazrat Zain-ul-Abideen
e. Hazrat Muhammad Baqir
f.  Hazrat Jafar Saqiq
g. Hazrat Musa Kazim
h. Hazrat Ali Raza
i.  Hazrat Muhammad Taqi
j.  Hazrat Ali Al Hadi
k. Hazrat Hasan Askari
l.  Hazrat Muhammad Mehdi

Hazrat Imam Mehdi:

● he did not die but went into hiding
● continued communication through 4 agents during the period known as lesser occultation
● from 329 AH greater occultation began, and continues till date
● this period will continue until the end of times
● the Imam will reappear publicly before the final judgment
● he is believed to have continued oversight of the affairs of the world
● when he returns he will be guided to defeat the forces of evil and establish justice on earth
"Education is not preparation for life; education is life itself."
John Dewey