"Success is not final, failure is not fatal: it is the courage to continue that counts."
Winston Churchill

Model Questions

Describe the 4 main sources of the legal thinking in Islam? [10]

Answer: The divine revelation (the Holy Quran) is the first basic primary source in Islamic law. It is the most authentic, comprehensive book contains laws of all spheres regarding to Islam. In the holy Quran Allah says “This is the book in it is guidance without doubt to those who fear” (2:2) it is the direct word of Allah hence its purity is doubtless. It’s clear teachings in Islamic legal thinking are followed without questions as Quran exist in its original form as Allah says in the Holy Quran “We have without doubt revealed the reminder and we will guard it” (15:9) The Holy Quran is a primary source containing all the fundamental directives and instructions of Allah including the principals relating to all the aspects of social and cultural life of human being individually and in whole community. The Quran is the last and complete edition of divine guidance and this is the only book of Allah which is not been distorted.

The second primary source of legal thinking in Islam is Sunnah. It comes next to the Quran. Sunnah literally means the sayings and actions of Prophet (S.A.W) or approval of actions of others by him. Sunnah is used when teachings of the Quran is not in the detail form but is summarized or when Quran is silent. Than the legislation may solely be derived from the Sunnah as Allah says in the Holy Quran “Nor does he speak of his own desire and he follows whatever been inspired to him and revealed to him” (Al-Najum). For example Muslims are commanded to pray Salat and pay Zakat but it is not mentioned in the Holy Quran that how to pry and how much to offer Zakat, it’s the Sunnah of the Prophet (S.A.W) that gave a clear description of such laws pertaining to Zakat and Prayer as Holy Prophet (S.A.W) himself said “Pray as you see me offering prayers” (Sahih Bukhari).
Ijma is the third source of Islamic legal thinking. In the terminology of religion Ijma means consensus of the companions of the Prophet (S.A.W) or Muslim jurists of a particular age, on a question of law. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) said “Gather together the righteous from among my community and decide the matter with their council and do not decide it by any man’s opinion” (Abu Daud). Ijma of the scholars signifies the importance of the legislation in the Muslim community. Ijma is considered as sufficient evidence for the implementation of the Islamic law because Prophet (S.A.W) himself said “My community will not agree unanimously on an error” (Tirmizi). The best example of Ijma is that when Holy Prophet (S.A.W) consulted his companions about matters that were not concerned with religion like Ijma for the battle of Uhad, because Allah commanded him to do that. “Take council with them in the conduct of affairs.” (3:139).

Qiyas is the fourth source of Islamic legal thinking. Qiyas is an analogical deduction from the above three sources of law. It basically resorted in respect of problems about which there is no specific provision in the Holy Quran or Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W). In case when something needs a legal ruling but has not been clearly addressed in other Islamic sources, judges may use (Islamic Scholars) analogy, reasoning and legal precedent to decide new case when a general principal can be applied to new situation e.g. the scholars have developed detailed principals of analogical deduction or Qiyas in the book of Islamic laws. The Prophet (S.A.W) reported to have encouraged Qiyas in his lifetime. When Holy Prophet (S.A.W) was sending Mauz bin Jabal (R.A) as the governor of Syria/Yemen. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) asked him “How will you decide when a matter comes to you for decision?” He replied “I shall decide according to the book of Allah.” The Prophet (S.A.W) again said that “If you did not find it in the book of Allah?” Mauz (R.A) replied “Than I will decide according to the Sunnah of the Prophet (S.A.W).” If you find nothing in there? Holy Prophet (S.A.W) asked. Hazrat Mauz (R.A) replied “Than I will exert myself for my own judgment.” (Tirmizi & Abu Daud)

Describe the use of Quran in legal thinking as the fundamental source of Islam? [10]

Answer: The last Holy Book from Allah the Quran sends to His last messenger Holy Prophet (S.A.W) for the whole mankind.The Holy Quran is the first primary source of law in Islamic Legal thinking and Islamic law. It is the fundamental source from which all principals, ordinances and injunctions of Islam are drawn. The Quran is a perfect book. It is the book of guidance as it offers a complete code of life covering all dimensions of human life i.e, economic , political , religious , social , legal and moral etc as the Quran says: " This is the book : in it is guidance sure without doubt those fear Allah " (2:2)

The Quran prescribed for us as a code of life by the Shariah of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) it is a Book lying down basic framework and outlines to all kinds of laws as the Quran says: " Surely , we have send down to you [O Muhammad (S.A.W)] the book [this Quran] in truth that you might judge between men by that which Allah has shown you (that is has taught you throw divine inspiration) , so we not pleader for the treacherous " (4:105)

The injunctions of the Quran are the basis of the Islamic Shariah. This law is perfect and comprehensive. It governs all the actions of the Muslims. It recognizes the failure of human nature and hence it does not lay undue burden on him, as Allah says “Allah does not charge a soul with more than it can bear” (2:286). Some of the important laws in Quran as the main source of law that tells us how the Quran guides us on deciding our matters are:

A) If a person dies and leaves behind wealth for his children, it must be divided up among his children according to laws and regulations which Allah has established for us in the holy Quran "Allah decree concerning your children as son will have a share equivalent to that of two daughters. If the female left behind are more than two, than for them is two-third of the inheritance. But if there is only one female then to her a half ...." (4:11) 

B) For those who steal, the Quran says " As for the thief, man or woman, cut of the hand of either of them: it is the recompense for what they have earned .........” (5:38).

C) An Islamic economy is free of interest. Islam prohibits all transactions following interest. Interest is a means of exploitation and concentration of wealth. It is in the Holy Quran "Those who swallow usury will stand up only like the one who stands up, whom devil has deranged by touch. That is because they say “trading is also just like usury, Allah has permitted trading and forbidden usury" (2:275)

D) The teachings of the Holy Quran relating to religious teachings Allah says “And be steadfast in prayer, practice charity. “(2:243)

E) Relating ones purity is an obligatory duty in the eyes of Allah (SWT) none should commit it. The holy Holly Quran gives us the law regarding those who commit Adultery, as Quran says "the women or man guilty of adultery flog each of them with hundred stripes” (24:2)

F) Marriage is the basis of the Islamic family and a good and sound society can grow only if a man and women are bound in a pure relation to the sacred contract of marriage. The Quran guides us, the Holy Quran says, “Marry not a woman, who’s your father married except what has already passed. Surely this was an indecency and a hateful act and an evil way .......” (4:22-23) 

G) Islam forbids abortion, as the holy Quran says " kill not your children in the dread of poverty, He provide for both, Killing them is a great blunder indeed" (17:31)

H) Some complications arise when one conducts a serious business with somebody and documentation is ignored. In the Quran, there are rules on this issue so that we might not fall into any doubts as the Quran says: “Oh, believers! When you contract a debt for a fixed period, then write it down between, let some scribe write down between you justly………..” (2:283)

So the Holy Quran is the final and complete message of Allah. It is complete because it covers all facets and provides guidance for all aspects of life. As Allah says in the Holy Quran: “Neither anything wet nor dry that is not contained in this luminous book.” (The Holy Quran)

Write an account of the major difficulties encountered by the Holy Prophet (saw) and his followers in the years when they lived in Makka. [10]

When the Prophet invited people to Islam and condemned the worship of idols, the Quraish took it an insult to their religion and the ways of their forefathers. They were not ready to leave their ancestors’ religion and so they turned against the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and his followers. They became violent towards the early converts to Islam.

The early converts were treated very harshly by the Quraish and they were very hostile towards them. Hazrat Bilal, an abyssinian slave, was greatly tortured by his master Umaya bin Khalaf. He was dragged with ropes in the streets by children. He was regularly laid on scorching sands under blazing sun and heavy stones were placed on his chest. Hazrat Uthman was wrapped in palm leaves by his pagan uncle and was hung over fire. He was tortured with smoke and heat. Ammar bin Yasir paid heavily for embracing the new faith. His father died of the consecutive tortures and his mother was martyred by Abu Jahl with a spear. Similarly, Khabbab bin Aratt was made to lie on bed of hot coals.

Along with his companions, the Holy Prophet himself was persecuted. Thorny bushes were spread in his way and filth and garbage was thrown at him. Abu Lahab’s wife, Umm Jamil, used to throw the waste of slaughtered goats on the Holy Prophet while he was in worship. She paid the children of Makka for throwing stones at the prophet (saw) and abusing him. Some times the stones hit his face and caused bleeding. The two daughters of the Holy Prophet who were married to the two sons of Abu Lahab were divorced on the provocation of their father and mother. This was a very great shock for the Prophet (PBUH) and his wife, Khadija.

After the death of his second son, the Hazrat Muhammad (saw) was taunted and called “abtar” (man with no male progeny). One day when he was prostrating in the Holy Ka’bah, Uqbah bin Mu’ait on the provocation of Abu jahl threw tripe of a camel, filled with noxious materials, on the Prophat’s head to suffocate him. He remained under the tripe. On hearing this news, his daughter, Fatima (RA), ran out into the Ka’bah and removed the tripe and cleaned his face.

The Quraish prohibited him from entering the Holy Ka’bah for prayers. One day when Muhammad (saw) was at home and the Muslims were praying in the Ka’bah, the Quraish attacked them and wounded several of the Muslims. Hazrat Harith, Khadija’s son (Muhammad’s (saw) step son) was martyred on the spot, who was the first male Muslim martyr.

In the 5th year of Prophethood when the atrocities of Quraish increased, the Holy Prophet ordered the Muslims to migrate to Abyssinia. A group of fifteen Muslims followed by another group of 79 migrated. The Quraish sent a delegation to Abyssinia and tried to bring them back, but they were not successful.  In the 7th year of Prophethood, the Quraish made a social and economic boycott with the Banu Hashim tribe and they had to live in the Shib Abi Talib for about three years. This was a very harsh time for the Muslims.

When the Prophet (saw) visited Taif in the hope that they could accept Islam, it was a very bitter experience for him. He was pelted with stones from which he received severe injuries. Later, the pagans took men from different tribes and formed a delegation that made plans to kill the Holy Prophet (saw). The Holy Prophet (saw) was informed about their strategies through revelation. Following the orders of the revelation, he along with Hazrat Abu Bakr migrated to Yasrib and left all their properties behind.


He was one of the best recites of the Quran

One of the few who had memorized the Quran in the Holy Prophet’s life time
One of those whom the Holy Prophet had asked to write down the Quran
One of the few who was present in the last Al Irza
The process which Hz Zaid undertook for the compilation:

He first collected all of the material on which the Quran had been written,such as the collar bones of camels,stones tablets, wide root of the date palm and leather pieces.He gathered all the memorisers and the scribes and compared what was written down with what he and others had memorized.if all agreed,he would then write down on pages of leather.In this way the whole Quran was written down during the reign of Hz AbuBakr the first caliph.On its completion, Zaid handed it tomHz Abu Bakr who kept it till his death.Just before his death the caliph handed the Quran to Hz Umar whom he had chosen as the second Caliph. This copy stayed with him until his death.This was then handed to Hz Hafsa his daughter and one of the Prophet’s wives.She kept it with her in Madinah in her custody but made it available for making copies of it,or to check the accuracy of what they had memorized.


The scribes of the Holy Prophet were his secretaries.They were entrusted with several responsibilities.Prominent among them were the four caliphs,Hz Zaid Bin Thabit and Abdullah bin Masud.Some of the Ashab e Sufa also acted as his scribes.

The scribes were responsible for the recording of the revelations.Whenever the Holy Prophet received a revelation he would send for one or the other of the scribes and dictate the revelation .The recording of the revelation was also done by many other companions.These recordings were later used in the compilation of the Mushaf.These scribes were also Huffaz.

The scribes would carry out various secretarial jobs for the Prophet such as recording of judgements passed by the Prophet,drafting of treaties etc.Hz Ali drafted the treaty of Hudaibya.Hz Zaid bin Thabit learnt the Hebrew language in 19 days at the command of the Prophet and was responsible for all communications with the Jews. The scribes remained in the company of the Prophet and noted down his mannerisms,behavior,reactions etcand we,later generations,glean much of our knowledge of the seer at from these recordings.Some of the scribes also maintained the written record of the sayings of the Prophet eg the Sahifas of Hz Ali and the Kitab of Hz Abu Huraira.They also narrated a large number of traditions which were valuable at the time of the compilation of the ahadith into the authentic collection,such as As Sadiqa by Abdullah bin Amr bin Al Aas,which contained 1000 Ahadith.


Prophethood is a gift from Allah that cannot be acquired by a person.Allah grants it to whosoever through His wisdom,to those who stand prepared for it and are capable of carrying it.He knows when and where to send His Prophets.Infallibility of Prophets and their manner of conveying the message and the performance of their divine trust is a matter on which there is an agreed Ijma of all the scholars.

Like all men Prophets are truly fallible, their distinction lies in that, Allah does not leave them in their error, He corrects them.The Prophets before being blessed with Prophethood do not know if they are chosen as it comes to them as a surprise.For eg.Hz Musa was attracted to a spiritual fire and when he approached it he was told he was blessed woth Prophethood .Hz Muhammad ( saw) too was surprised when he saw Hz Jibrael for the first time.
The facilitation from Allah is through the miracles,Hz Musa with the staff,Hz Saleh with the emergence of a she camel,Hz Isa could speak from the cradle.When Hz Younus left his nation, by miracle he was swallowed by a whale,remained in its stomach and was then thrown out after 40 days supplication.

(a) Outline the changes in Prophet’s relations with the Jewish tribes and the ‘hypocrites’ in Madinah, in the years 622 and 632. (10)

When the Prophet migrated to Madinah in 622 AD, apart from Muslims, 3 Jewish tribes (Banu Qainuqah, Banu Nadeer and Banu Quraydhah) resided in the suburbs of Madinah. There were also people who portrayed themselves to be Muslims, but in effect, were bitterest enemies of Islam. They were known as Munafiqun, hypocrites, and were led by Abdullah bin Ubay.

Prophet wanted to have good relationship with Jews of Madinah, so he signed a treaty with them, known as the Charter of Madinah. The charter granted Jews freedom to practice their religion, but also said that they shall not have any relations with the Quraysh and if Madinah is attacked, they shall all unite to protect it. The Jews agreed to these terms.

However, soon the Jews prove that they were not to be trusted with such issues. In 2 AH, Battle of Badr took place. The Jews of Banu Qainuqah broke the convenant and kept bilateral relations with the Quraysh, and also offered them aid against Muslims. After the war, Prophet was forced to take action against them and Banu Qainuqah were exiled after a siege.

Then, in 3 AH, the chief of Banu Nadeer, Kaab bin Ashraf, went to Makkah to join the Makkans in their mourning for those who had died in Battle of Badr. He instigated the Makkans to attack Muslims and also offered them help, if needed. Therefore, in 3 AH, Battle of Uhad took place. The Banu Nadeer continued aiding the Quraysh, who, in the end, emerged successful. However, the Prophet knew that action must be taken against Banu Nadeer so, they were asked to leave Madinah. On refusal, a 14-day siege was laid onto their forts after which they surrendered, and went to Syria and Khyber, which later became Jew strongholds.

Later, in 5 AH, when Madinah was attacked by tribes from all over Arabia (including Quraysh, Banu Ghatafan, Tihamah, Ashjah, Murrah, Kinanah) in the Battle of Ahzab, the last Jew tribe, Banu Quraydhah, broke the Charter of Madinah. Not only did they provide financial assistance to the allies, but also provided them a route into Madinah via their forts and other secret passages. Though Muslims emerged successful, after the war, action was taken against Banu Quraydhah, according to a decision by Hz Saad bin Muaadh, as per Jewish law in the Old Testament. Their men were slain and women & children were taken as captives.

The insurgencies continued as the Jews of Khyber still posed a threat for Muslims. In7 AH, the Khyber Expedition took place against Jews as a result of the problems they were causing. The fortresses at Khyber were conquered with ease and Jews were allowed to retain their land if they agreed to pay a tribute, On the way back, a Jew woman tried to poison Holy Prophet by giving him poisoned meat of a goat, but miraculously the Prophet was saved as Allah informed him. Attempts were also made by Banu Nadeer to martyr him by dropping a heavy boulder on him from a height, but again the Prophet was saved by Allah’s Will. This forced the Prophet to take austere measures against the Jews.

The relation with Munafiqun was not as harsh, but it did show change. Since migration, Abdullah bin Ubay (who was supposed to be crowned king of Madinah if migration had not taken place) housed rivalries for the Prophet and maintained secret ties with the Quraysh. He encouraged the Quraysh & kept in constant contact with them in the Battle of Badr. In Uhad, he, alongwith his 300 men, deserted the Muslim army on the excuse that Abdullah bin Ubay’s advice to fight within Madinah had not been accepted. Prophet was informed of the names of these 300 Munafiqun by Hz Jibrael but he did not take action against them, nor did he disclose the names publicly (only Hz Huzaifa knew). Then in 5 AH, Battle of Trench, he against kept in constant contact with the Quraysh. In 7 AH, when returning from an expedition to Banu Mustaliq, the incident of Ifk, slander on Hz Ayesha by Munafiqun took place. On getting to know the realities, the hypocrites (alongwith the Believers who had become trapped in the propaganda) were given 80 slashes of the cane.

In Tabuk Expedition, The Munafiqun did not accompany the Prophet, and on return of the Prophet, made all sorts of excuses. But the Prophet forgave them all and prayed for them. They also made Masjid-e-Ziraar as a stronghold, to harm Muslims, and plan against them. This mosque was demolished by Prophet on Allah’s orders. At the death of Abdullah bin Ubay in9 AH, the Prophet even gave him his shirt to be buried in, and also offered his funeral, but was mildly reproached by Allah for doing so. After his death, the strength of Munafiqun broke and they embraced Islam.

(b) Suggest reasons why his relations with the Jewish tribes changed.

The Prophet soon realised that Jews did not respect his position as a prophet, and abused him. This was intolerable. It was also necessary to change relationships with Jews because they were becoming a constant threat for Muslims by repeatedly cooperating with Quraysh against Muslims. They were a threat to the safety & integrity of Madinah, thus had to be expelled. Moreover, they hated the Prophet and wanted to kill him. Since the life of the Prophet himself was not safe from them, they were treated harshly. When the Quraan revealed the verse in Surah Nisaa condemning all sorts of relations with Jews, the relations further deteriorated, and also encouraged taking action against the Jews.

Q. What does a believer understand by “And Muhammad is the seal of the Prophets”?

Ans. Many other prophets came before the Prophet (SAW), but they were to guide a paricular nation. Allah revealed prophets according to the conditions and needs of the people. Prophet (SAW)’s was universal. he guided the Muslims in all aspects of human life. He was the last messenger of Allah, there will be no other prophet after him. “Whenever a prophet perished, another prophet followed him, but surely there will be no prophet after me,” Prophet said. When we say that “Muhammad was the Seal of the Prophets” we mean that Muhammad closed the line of 1,24,000 prophets. Muhammad (SAW) was the last messenger of Allah. His message was complete and for the whole universe. After him, there was no need of any other prophet to come and guide people. Allah granted Prophet (SAW) with great wisdom and guidance for the people of all times to come. His message was final and complete, without any flaws. Prophets who preceded the Prophet (SAW) also told abut the Prophet to the people and that he will be the last and great messenger of Allah. Prophet (PBUH) sealed the long line of prophets which started by Hazrat Adam (AS) and he himself made sure to instil the belief in Muslims’ minds that there will be no other prophet after him.

Write about Muslim belief in Oneness of Allah (Tauhid)? [10]

Ans  The Oneness of Allah is the first and basic faith of Islam. There are three parts of this faith: Allah is Alone in His Existence, there is no partner with Him in His Attributes and He Alone is worthy of Worship. Associating partner with Allah in anyone of the above three parts is called shirk.

When it comes to Existence of Allah, He is present from the beginning and He will last forever. He has neither ancestry nor children. The Quran says, “Say He is Allah, the One and Only; Allah, the Eternal, the Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten. And there is none like unto Him” (112: 1-4). Those who believed that angels were daughters of Allah committed shirk in His Existence. Similarly, believing that Uzair or Christ is the son of Allah, is shirk in His Existence. The concept of Trinity is also against the Oneness of Allah.

Now coming to the Attributes of Allah, He Alone is the Creator, Sustainer and Master of the universe. There is no partner with Him in Controlling and Sustaining this universe. He is All-Knowing and All-Powerful. No creature can share his Divinity or His unique Attributes. He knows the secrets in the hearts of the people. He is beyond human comprehension and imagination. He is above having any similarity with any of His creations. The Quran says, “There is nothing whatever like unto Him …” (42: 11). He has unlimited Authority and Powers. He Alone can help all the creatures in the universe. If a person gives a call for help to a deity, who is far away from Him or is dead, he commits shirk. Here the person believes that the deity sees him and can help him. Only Allah is All-Aware and Helper of the people.

And finally coming to the worship of Allah; no one can be a partner with Him in His worship. The Quran says: “…adore not the sun nor the moon, but adore Allah who created them…”(41: 37). At another place: “…there is no god but I, therefore worship and serve Me …” (21: 25). Bowing down before any deity, idol, grave, sun, moon, fire or stars is shirk. Slaughtering animals on the shrines in the names of those who are buried there is also shirk. Seeking help from idols and graves is another form of shirk. Shirk is an unpardonable sin. The Quran says, “Allah will not forgive those who associate other gods with Him; but He will forgive whom He will for other sins. He that associates other gods with Him is guilty of a heinous sin” (4: 48). All the good deeds like prayers, fasting, hajj and charities of a person shall go in vain if he commits shirk.

Give an account of how the Qur’an was compiled in the years following the Prophet’s death? [10]

Ans   The Holy Prophet could not read or write. When revelations came to him by Hazrat Jibrail, the scribes were said to write them down on bones of animals, barks of trees, pieces of pottery or any other things they could find. The Quran was completely written and arranged in sequence by the Holy Prophet’s (saw) death, but it was scattered in different pieces. During the caliphate of Abu Bakr, at least seventy of the memorizers of the Qur’an lost their lives in the Battle of Yamama. After that incident, Hazrat Umar suggested to Hazrat Abu Bakr to make a written collection of the Quran in order to preserve it. Hazrat Abu Bakr did not want to do this, because the Prophet had not done it. But Hazrat Umar persuaded him and ultimately he asked Zayd bin Thabit, the Prophet’s (saw) secretary, to do the work. Zayd worked very hard between 11 and 14 AH. Although he himself was a hafiz of the Quran, he always tried to find a written verse before adding it to his manuscript in order to check and ensure authenticity of the verse. Finally a collection of the Holy Quran was made into a single volume. It remained under the first caliph, then transferred to the second caliph, Hazrat Umar, and after his death, Hazrat Hafsa took it under her custody. The copy of Quran under Hazrat Hafsa came to be known as Mashaf al-Hafsa.

   During the Khilafat of Hazrat Umar, the Muslim Empire was extended a lot. New converts to Islam in countries like Syria and Iraq recited the Quran in different ways. This disturbed Hazrat Anas (RA) who went to Hazrat Uthman and requested him to take immediate action against this otherwise it might create a rift in the Muslims. Hazrat Uthman nominated Zayd bin Thabit along with three other companions to make copies of the Quran in Quraishi dialect from the original text, because the Quran was revealed in that dialect. After preparing copies of the Quran, they were read loudly in the Prophet’s mosque so that no confusion may arise in the minds regarding alteration. The copies were finally sent to different parts of the empire with the instructions that future copies would be made from the official text only. All remaining variations were destroyed through fire so that no misunderstanding may arise in the future. As a result only one authentic text has remained in use to this day.


Ans. 5(a):   This statement tells us that Allah is the Almighty and the All-Powerful-Omnipotent. His power succeeds all as He is the Creator of this universe. He has the complete authority over all His creation and no one can interfere in His matters.

Muslim belief in Allah’s predestination and decree is an article of faith in Islam. Without this belief, the faith is incomplete. The best of planners is Allah and this virtue, makes a believer more steadfast, as he knows that even before his birth, everything was planned for him. Muslims therefore completely submit themselves to the will of Allah and accept His decisions as the sole decisions. There is no reasoning or questioning regarding any aspect, as we are firm in the belief that Allah knows everything, for He is the Omniscient. He also knows how much a person can bear and He does not put more burden than what he cannot bear. He loves His creation seventy times more than a mother and He also forgives their sins as He is the Most Merciful and Oft-Forgiving. Allah says,” Verily My mercy overcomes My wrath”.
Muslims also believe that anything good or bad that happens to them is from the will of Allah and Allah Himself says,” If all the people combine together to cause you any good, they would not be able to do so, until Allah wills and if all the people combine together to cause you any harm, they would not be able to do so until Allah wills”. This shows us that nothing in this world is as much powerful or even comparable in power to Allah. That’s why in Surah Ikhlaas, Allah’s Oneness and unity is stressed upon, which is Shahadah- the first pillar of Islam.
Muslims also believe that everything is destined beforehand but they still have the freedom of choice. They can choose between the right and the wrong. As Allah says,” Man can get nothing but what he strives for”. If we strive in the right direction, we will surely be benefitted from what we gain, but if we strive in the wrong direction, we will surely be doomed. As the Prophet (SAW) said,” This world is the believer’s prison and an unbeliever’s paradise”.
Thus, believing in what is destined for us makes a Muslim virtuous. He knows that if he has put in his best, Allah will surely reward him. The fact that is a Hadith, “The pens have been set aside and the writings of the book of fate have become dry”, instills in man a sense of gratitude towards his Creator and also makes him thankful to his Lord.    

Ans. 5(b):
In our daily lives, we leave all our matters to Allah’s judgment as we know He is the best Judge. We allow our entire existence to believe in God’s power and authority over all our matters, our problems are reduced to zero. We know He is writing the script of our life, and He only writes Masterpieces. Thus, we become thankful to Him for what He has bestowed on us and we are fearless regarding the future, as we know that what is destined has to happen.

Why do some legal scholars reject the use of analogy (qiyas)? [4]

Ans  Analogy (qiyas) is the fourth source of Islamic law that is used when the primary sources are silent about a newly appeared issue. However some scholars reject its use on the following basis.

  • There is detailed description of everything in the Quran so there is no need to follow another source. "...And We have sent down to you the Book (the Qur'an) as an exposition of everything..." (Nahl: 89).
  • Resolution of issues through Qiyas takes precedence over Allah and His Messenger which is forbidden in the Quran. "O you who believe! Do not put (yourselves) forward before Allah and His Messenger..." (Hujuraat: 1)
  • Qiyas is conjecture which gives no benefit against the truth. "And most of them follow nothing but conjecture. Certainly, conjecture can be of no avail against the truth..." (Yunus: 36)
  • We are bound to decide among the people with what Allah has revealed and solutions through qiyas are not revealed by Allah. "And so judge (you O Muhammad ) between them by what Allah has revealed and follow not their vain desires..." (Ma'idah: 49).

"Education is not preparation for life; education is life itself."
John Dewey