"Success is not final, failure is not fatal: it is the courage to continue that counts."
Winston Churchill

Life of Prophet(s)

Life of Prophet(s)

The Main Events of Prophet’s Life from Birth to Prophet Hood:



Birth and Upbringing:

  • The prophet (PBUH) was born on 12th Rabi-ul-Awal, 570 A.D. 
  • His father had died six months before his birth. 
  • At his birth, he was given to his foster mother, Halima Saadia, who took him to a village and he returned at the age of six. 
  • When he came back, his mother, Aamnah, took him to Yasrib to meet a few relatives and visit the grave of the Prophet’s father. 
  • However, on their way back Hazrat Aamnah fell ill and died. 
  • The Prophet was escorted back by a slave girl Umm-e-Aymen. 
  • \Back in Makkah, the Prophet’s grandfather, Abdul Mutalib took his custody; but he too passed away two years later. 
  • So, now, the prophet’s paternal uncle, Abu Talib, took his care and trained him as a shepherd.
  • Once, the Prophet was accompanying his uncle on a trade journey to Syria, when on their way they met a Christian Monk, Bahira. Bahira recognized in the prophet, signs of prophet hood and cautioned them to not continue their journey ahead. 
  • When the prophet was 15 years old, war broke out between two tribes. '
  • The Prophet accompanied his uncles in this war – known as the sacrilegious war – but he had no major role in them apart from collecting arrows thrown by the enemy and handing them over to his uncles. 
  • After this war, a committee was formed in Makkah to prevent further bloodshed. 
  • This was called the Half-ul-Fazul, and the Prophet was not only present but actively participated. 
  • He is reported to have said: “I was present at the house of Abdullah Bin Judan at so excellent a pact that if toady in Islam I were summoned unto it I would gladly respond”.



Marriage to Khadija:

  • During his early years, the Prophet came to be known as Al-Sadiq and Al-Amin. 
  • In such times, a widow trader, Hazrat Khadija, needed a trustworthy person to carry her goods to Syria. 
  • She heard of the good character of the prophet and decided to hire him. 
  • She sent her slave girl Maisara along on the trade expedition, and when they returned not just had the Prophet made huge profits, but Maisara spoke a lot good about the Prophet. Hazrat Khadija was so impressed that she sent a marriage proposal to the Prophet, which was accepted on his behalf by Abu Talib, his uncle., 
  • Although Hz. Khadija was 15 years older than the Prophet, they had a successful marriage and had 6 children, 2 of whom died in infancy.



Fixing of Black Stone:

  • Later, once, when the Ka’abah was being rebuilt, the issue of fixing the black stone aroused. Everybody wanted to this prestigious task and none was willing to compromise; so much so that bloodshed was feared. 
  • In such a hostile situation, an elderly man suggested that anybody who entered the Ka’abah first would make the decision. 
  • Fortunately, it was the Holy Prophet who made a very wise decision. 
  • He laid the stone on a sheet and told the leaders of the tribes to hold the sheet from each corner and lift it up. 
  • When the stone reached the desired level, the Prophet picked the stone and placed it on its position. Thus everyone was happy.
  •  Gradually, when the Prophet was nearing the age of 40, he used to take dates and water and meditate in the cave of Hira, pondering over the ill practices of Arabs.



The Main Events of His Activities in Makkah and Experience with Opponents:·

First Revelation:

  • When the Prophet was nearing the age of 40, in 610 A.D, he would take dates and water along and meditate in the cave of Hira. 
  • He used to ponder over the god of his fore fathers, especially Hazrat Ibrahim and he detested the ill practices of the Arabs. 
  • One such day, towards the end of Ramzan an angel appeared before him and asked him to read. 
  • The Prophet replied that he could not read since he had not received any formal education. The angel then hugged him tightly and asked him again to read. 
  • The Prophet again replied that he could not read. 
  • The angel again squeezed the Prophet tighly and repeated his demand for the third time. The Prophet finally asked, what should I read? 
  • In response, the angel recited the first 4 verses of Surah Alaq:
  • Read! in the name of your Lord, who created, 2. Created man out of a clot of congealed blood: 3. Proclaim! And your Lord is most bountiful, 4. He who taught by the pen, 5. Taught man what he did not know.
  • After the Prophet had recited these verses, the angel disappeared. 
  • In confusion, the Prophet ran out of the cave. 
  • Outside, he saw the angel filling the horizon and then he heard a voice: “O Muhammad! You are the messenger of Allah and I am Jibrael”. 
  • The Prophet ran to his house and asked Hazrat Khadija to cover him up in a blanket. 
  • He then narrated the entire incident to her. 
  • On hearing the entire account, Hazrat Khadija pacified him by saying: “you have never done any wrong to anyone. You are kind to the others and help the poor. Allah will not let you down”.
  • Hazrat Khadija later took the Prophet to her cousin and Christian scholar, Warqah-bin-Naufil.
  • Warqah confirmed the prophet hood of the prophet and said that he had been visited by the same angel who had visited other prophets.
  • He also forewarned that the Prophet will be expelled from his own city by his own people.


Opposition and Persecution by the Quraish:

During his early years, the Prophet had to face severe persecution and opposition from the Quriash, some examples are mentioned below:


  • When the prophet first called them to Islam at the mount of safa, he was ridiculed and made fun of.
  • Once, when the Prophet was praying a Quraish threw the intestines of a camel on his back while he was prostrating.
  • Umm-e-Jabeel, the wife of Abu Lahb, used to throw thorny bushes on the path of Prophet.
  • Abu Lahb told his sons to divorce their wives who were the Prophet’s Daughters, just to add to his worries.
  • During the tie when there was a gap between the revelations the makkans used to mock the Prophet that his God had abandoned him.
  • A lady used to throw rubbish on the Prophet.
  • The makkans wrote poems to ridicule the Prophet and called him a magician.
  • They also offered him bribes like making him king or marrying him to the prettiest girl so that he would stop preaching Islam.
  • When both of the Prophet’s sons passed away in infancy, the Quraish called him “abtar” – he who has no male descendants.
  • In between such persecutions, Prophet’s wife Hazrat Khadija and his uncle Hazrat Abu Talib passed away. This was a huge loss for the Prophet because both of them had been a source of immense support for the Prophet. It was because of this tragic loss that the Prophet called this year the year of grief.
  • Sometime later, the Prophet visited Taif to preach Islam. He was accompanied by his adopted son Zaid Bin Haris. When the Prophet called the people of Taif to Islam, he had to face a very negative response. The young boys of Taif hurled stones at the Prophet and was forced to retreat in a badly bleeding condition.
  • The final blow was when the Makkans gathered at Dar-un-Nadwa and made a plan to assassinate the Holy Prophet, so much so that he and his followers were forced to migrate to Madinah.
  • Not only the Prophet himself, but his followers also had to face maltreatment and the hands of Quraish. Cited below are some examples:
  • Hazrat Bilal – an Abyssinian slave – was tortured by his master Ummaya Bin Khalf. Ummaya would tie a rope around Hazrat Bilal’s neck and drag him on the streets. He would also make Hazrat Bilal on burning coal and place a stone on his chest so that he could not move. Yet, Hazrat Bilal never renounced his faith and remained steadfast. He was later freed by Hazrat Abu Bakr.
  • Hazrat Abu Bakr himself was tied with a rope along with Hazrat Talha.
  • Hazrat Usman was tortured by his very own uncle.
  • Hazrat Zinra was persecuted to an extent that she lost her eye sight.
  • Hazrat Talha and Zubair were dragged in streets and suffocated.
  • The parents were of Hazrat Ammar Bin Yasir were tortured to death. Infact, his mother Hazrat Summayah was the first female martyr of Islam.
  • Suhaib Rumi eventually lost control of what he said due to extensive persecution.
  • Khabab bin Arrat was made to lie on burning coal.
  • Abu Fukaih, too, was made too loe on hot burning stones until his tongue dropped out.
  • Abu Zarr Ghaffari was attacked by a crowd of non believers and he fell down senseless.
  • For 3 whole years, all the people of Bani Hashim except Abu Jahl were foeced to leave in a secluded valley in the outskirts of Makkah. A total boycott, social and economic was done with them so much so that they ahd to survive on boiled leather for food.



Migration To Abyssinia:

  • The hardships and suffering of the Muslims increased. 
  • The Prophet gave permission to a group of Muslims to migrate to Abyssinia. 
  • Accordingly, in the fifth year of prophet hood, a group of eleven men and four women secretly left for Abyssinia, these included Hazrat Usman and his wife Ruqqaya, daughter of the Prophet. 
  • The followed another group of 70 men including Hazrat Jafar, son of Abu Talib. 
  • Although the Quraish tried to follow the emigrants and bring them back, they failed. 
  • In fact, Najashi the king of Abyssinia treated the Muslims very kindly.



Boycott:

  • During the early years in Makkah, the believers had to face severe persecutions at the hands of Quraish. 
  • The Quraish tried their best to harass the Muslims and make them denounce their faith. 
  • Yet the Muslims remained steadfast, proving that they could even risk their lives for Islam. 
  • It was because of this steadfastness that they were able to live through the three years in the secluded valley –Shib Abi Talib. 
  • Situation got so worse that the people had to survive on leather and boiled leaves. 
  • Echoes of crying children were heard from the valley. 
  • Eventually, after 3 years of immense hardships, the hearts or Quraish melted and they lifted the ban.

Year of Grief:

  • The 3 tough years had just ended when another blow came to the Prophet in the form of his uncle, Abut Talib’s death. 
  • He was the same uncle who had bought up the Prophet and showered on him his love and affection. 
  • His death worried the Prophet a lot as his influential status was a source of protection for the Prophet. 
  • The very same year, the wife of Prophet also passed away. 
  • Hazrat Khadija had provided the Prophet with financial and moral support and her death was a very saddening event for the Prophet. 
  • After these two great losses the Prophet called this year the year of grief and did not feel secure in Makkah for now he had little protection left.



Visit to Taif:

  • While the Prophet was just recovering from this loss, he decided to focus on the expansion of Islam. 
  • Therefore, he travelled to the valley of Taif along with his adopted son, Zaid Bin Haris, to preach Islam. 
  • His message was not at all welcomed there in fact young boys hurled stones at him until he bled. 
  • Eventually, the Prophet took refuge in a nearby orchard and when an angel asked about punishing the people, the Prophet refused recognizing their influence and in fact prayed for them. 
  • After this event he realized that he needed another place to preach Islam as it was certainly not acceptable to the people of Taif or Makkah.



Mairaj:

  • In the 10th year of prophethood, the prophet was taken for Isra and Mairaj. 
  • While the Holy Prophet was asleep in his house, Jibrael (A.S) came and took him to Ka’abah, where the Prophet rode a mule like animal called Burraq. 
  • It took him to Jerusalem where the Holy Prophet offered two Rakat. 
  • He again rode the Burraq and they reached the heavens. 
  • The prophet was taken to all seven heavens where he met various prophets. 
  • Angel Jibrael then led them to the lote tree beyond which the angel couldn’t go but the Prophet was permitted to go. 
  • Allah spoke to him directly over there and the last verses of Surah Baqarah were revealed. 5 prayers a day were also made compulsory here.



Pledges of Aqabah:

  • On his return from Taif, Prophet resumed his preaching, concentrating more on outsiders who came to Makkah for pilgrimage. 
  • In the eleventh year of Prophet Hood, six pilgrims from the tribe of Khazraj in Madinah came to Makkah. 
  • The Prophet called them to Islam and they embraced faith. 
  • Next year, 12 people from Yasrib met the Prophet at Aqabah, accepted faith, agreed to abstain from idol worship, cruelty and falsehood, lead a righteous life and believe in one God. 
  • This was called the First Pledge of Aqabah. 
  • These newly converts promised to spread Islam in Yasrib and the Prophet sent 2 people with them to preach Islam to the residents of Yasrib.  
  • In the 13th year of prophet hood, a delegation consisting of 75 people came from Yasrib to take the same pledge which was now called the 2nd pledge of Aqabah.  
  • They also invited the Prophet to Yasrib and pledged full support for him and his followers. This made the Prophet realize that the people of Yasrib were keen to accept Islam and their hospitality could be beneficial to Islam.
  • The main events of his activities in Medina, his leadership of the community there and his conflicts with the Makkans and others



Main events of Migration:


  • The Prophet allowed his followers to migrate to Yasrib. 
  • When the Quraish got to know of it, they gathered at Dar-un-Nadwa and unanimously decided to assassinate the Prophet. 
  • Allah informed the prophet about this plot through a revelation and permitted him to leave. Prophet asked Hazrat Ali to sleep in his bed to fool the Quraish and also to return the valuable people had kept with the Prophet. 
  • The Prophet then left for Madinah with Hazrat Abu Bakar. 
  • They were aware that they were being pursued by the Quraish; therefore they decided to hide in a cave, named Saur, for some time. 
  • They stayed for 3 days. When the Quraish came looking for the Prophet, they did not bother looking inside the cave as a pigeon had laid eggs at the threshold of the cave, a spider had formed a web and branches of a tree were covering the entrance – these were all miracles of Allah. 
  • During this stay, Hazrat Abu Bakr was worried so the Prophet consoled him by saying: “have no fear for Allah is with us”
  • During their stay, Hazrat Abu Bakr was bit by a snake but he did not even shout as the Prophet was sleeping in his lap and he did not want to disturb him. 
  • This shows how much he cared for the Prophet. While their stay in the cave, Hazrat Abu Bakr’s son, Abdullah used to bring them news about the Quraish and his daughter, Asma, would bring them food supplies. 
  • After three days when the Prophet and Hazrat Abu Bakar were sure that the Quraish were no longer following them, they continued their journey. 
  • They again stopped at Quba for 14 days where Hazrat Ali joined them and the 1st mosque of Islam was built. 
  • When the people of madinah heard of their arrival, they were anxiously waiting. 
  • Upon their arrival, they publicly welcomed them wholeheartedly and young girls even sang songs for the Prophet. 
  • Everybody wanted the Prophet to stay with them but the Prophet said that his camel was under divine instructions so he would stay where the camel stopped. 
  • The camel stopped at an open ground which belonged to two orphans, and the Prophet decided to build a mosque on that place after paying the orphans its price. 
  • Meanwhile, the Prophet stayed at Hazrat Abu Ayub Ansari’s residence.



 Mosque of the Prophet:


  • Upon his arrival, they publicly welcomed the Prophet wholeheartedly and young girls even sang songs for him. 
  • Everybody wanted the Prophet to stay with them but the Prophet said that his camel was under divine instructions so he would stay where the camel stopped. 
  • The camel stopped at an open ground which belonged to two orphans, and the Prophet decided to build a mosque on that place after paying the orphans its price. 
  • Meanwhile, the Prophet stayed at Hazrat Abu Ayub Ansari’s residence. 
  • This mosque was known as the Mosque of the Prophet – Masjid-e-Nabawi. 
  • The materials used for the construction included unbaked bricks which were used to make the walls. 
  • The roof was made of mud and date palm leaves. 
  • Trunks of date palm were used as pillars. 
  • A large platform with a thatched roof was built in one of the corners. It was known as Suffah. The Prophet himself took part in building the mosque and was assisted by many of his companions. 
  • It served as a residential place for the Prophet and his family. 
  • It also became the political and military head quarter of the state and served as an institute of learning.



Brotherhood:



  • The makkans had left their families and belongings in Makka and now they needed financial support. 
  • Therefore, each emigrant was paired with an Ansar –the people of Medina – and they were declared as brothers. 
  • The Ansars shared all their wealth and property with the emigrants and they were even allowed to inherit from them. 
  • In some cases, they even shared wives. 
  • The Ansar offered endless support to the emigrants and tried their best to facilitate them. 
  • The emigrants, on the other hand, did not become a burden on the Ansar and soon started living independently.

Covenant of Medina:


  • In his attempt to achieve good relations with all the inhabitants of Medina, the Prophet devised the Covenant of Medina. 
  • He drew a covenant with the people of the town, whether Muslims or non Muslims (including Jews) which clearly defined the duties and privileges of all the people. It said:
  1. All people of Medina would defend the city collectively
  2. There would be complete religious freedom for all
  3.  If a conflict arises within the Medinites, the Prophet will be consulted for decision.



Battle of Badr:



  • The trade caravans of the Quraish used to pass through Madinah,. 
  • The Prophet decided to threaten the caravans which would hurt the Quraish economically. He started sending parties to watch the caravans. 
  • In 624 A.D, Abu Sufyan, the leader of Quraish was coming from Syria with a huge trading caravan. He was afraid that the Muslims might intercept his caravan and therefore he summoned troops from Makkah. 
  • Hence an army of 1000 men came to escort the caravan. 
  • Although the caravan safely reached Makkah, yet Abu Jahl insisted on fighting the Muslims. So, Quraish, with an army of 1000 men marched towards Medina. 
  • When the Prophet heard of this, he consulted his companions and decided to fight them outside Medina. 
  • The Muslims raised an army of 313 men. 
  • Both the armies met at Badr. The Quraish had arrived first so they occupied all the important positions. 
  • The area that Muslims got was sandy land. 
  • That night, Allah sent down rain and not only were the Muslims able to collect ample water but their land also got smooth. 
  • The Quraish heavily outnumbered the Muslims and so the Prophet spent the entire night praying to Allah. 
  • Allah responded to his prayers by sending heavenly assistance. 
  • Regarding this, the Quran says: “remember ye implored the assistance of thy Lord and he answered I will assist you with a thousand angels, ranks on ranks”
  • Initially whne the battle started; there was a single combat in which Hazrat Ali Hazrat Hamza and Hazrat Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah fought against Utba, Sheeba and Waleed. 
  • After the Muslim success in the single combat, general fighting began. 
  • While the battle was going on, the Prophet prayed to Allah saying: “O Allah! If this small band of men perishes today there will be no one left to worship you and your faith will be destroyed forever”
  • This shows that the Prophet was constantly seeking Allah’s help and Allah’s help did arrive for despite being less in number, Muslims were able to defeat the Quraish. 
  • Even Abu Jahl, the leader of Quraish was killed by Abdullah Bin Masood. 
  • Overall, 70 pagans were killed and 70 were taken as captives, the Prophet treated the prisoners of war humanely and many were freed. 
  • On the other hand, only 14 Muslims were martyred. A large amount of booty was also captured which was distributed among the Muslims.


Battle of Uhad:

  • After the defeat of Battle of Badr, the Quraish were waiting to take revenge. 
  • They included those who had lost their family members at Badr and those who had invested their profits in the war. 
  • They instigated the Quraish leader, Abu Sufyan, to wage war. 
  • Therefore, the Quraish prepared an army of 3000 men and marched towards Medina in 625 A.D under the leadership of Abu Sufyan. 
  • When the Prophet heard of this, he consulted his companions. 
  • Although he himself was in favor of fighting inside Medina, upon the suggestion of most of the companions it was decided that they would outside Medina. 
  • Initially, the Muslim army consisted of 1000 men but 300 hypocrites left the army under the leadership of Abdullah Bin Ubayy saying that their demand of fighting inside Medina was not fulfilled so they would not fight. 
  • Therefore, the remaining 700 people marched towards Uhad. 
  • In the battlefield, the Prophet appointed 50 archers under the command of Abdullah Bin Jubair to guard a pass. 
  • The Prophet clearly instructed them to not leave the pass under any circumstances. 
  • Initially, when the battle started, Muslims had an upper hand and they were successful in defeating the Quraish such that the Quraish were began to flee, leaving behind a lot of booty. 
  • When the archers saw this, they too left their posts and came to collect the spoils of war, assuming that the war was over. However, when Khaild Bin Waleed saw the pass unguarded, 
  • he along with his companions attacked from the rear. 
  • At this point, the victory of Muslims turned into a near defeat. As the Quraish had attacked from the back, Muslims did not know what to do and chaos & panic prevailed. 
  • In this confusion, the Prophet himself was attacked and badly wounded. 
  • He even lost two of his teeth, and became unconscious for some time. 
  • The nearest of the Prophet’s companions formed a defensive ring around him, yet rumors spread that the Prophet had been martyred. 
  • However, the Prophet tried to control the situation and lessened the panic. 
  • Over all, the Muslims suffered heavy losses and 70 of them were martyred. 
  • These martyrs included Hazrat Hamza, an uncle of the Prophet, who had been killed by a slave Wahshi, upon the instructions of Hinda, the wife of Abu Sufyan. 
  • Hinda later chewed the dead body and mutilated it to avenge her father’s death at the hands of Hazrat Hamza.

Battle of Trench:

  • After the Battle of Uhad, the Muslims were able to regain their former position. 
  • The Quraish could not reconcile themselves with the growing power of Muslims and felt threatened. 
  • Meanwhile, the Jewish tribe of Banu Nazir who had settled at Khyber kept on plotting against the muslims. Their chiefs went to Makkah and asked for help against the Muslims, which the Quraish agreed to give. 
  • Then they went to Ghatafan tribe and gained their support too. 
  • Some other tribes also agreed to give full support against the Muslims, so with an army of 10,000 men under the command of Abu Sufyan they marched to Medina in 5 A.H. when the Prophet came to know of this, he consulted his companions. 
  • Hazrat Salman Farsi, who was a Persian, suggested that a trench be built. 
  • This suggestion was unanimously accepted by all. 
  • As medina was safe from all other sides, a trench was built only in the north. '
  • The Prophet himself took part in digging the trench. 
  • It took 8 days to build a trench 15 feet deep and 3 km wide, 3000 companions took part in digging the Trench. '
  • When the Quraish arrived, they were shocked and did not know what to do as this trench was far beyond their imagination. 
  • Despite several attempts, the Quraish were unable to cross the trench and so they camped behind it. 
  • Minor skirmishes took place for a couple of days in which Muslims had an upper hand. Whenever, a person would attempt to cross the Trench, Muslims would hurl stones and arrows. 
  • Muslims had to remain vigilant throughout and could not even assemble for prayer. Meanwhile, Banu Qurayza, a Jewish tribe residing in medina violated the covenant of Medina and decided to attack from inside Medina. 
  • The Prophet sent a detachment to watch and this threat was successfully eliminated. 
  • The siege of Quraish lasted for a month after which a terrible storm came which blew away their camps and they were forced to flee. 
  • Thus Muslims gained victory.



Treaty Of Hudaybia:


  • In 628 A.D, the Prophet dreamt that he was entering the holy Ka’abah. 
  • So, he planned to go to Makkah for the lesser pilgrimage. In the month of Dhul-Qadah, the Prophet along with 1400 unarmed companions left for Makkah. 
  • Although they had no intention of waging war and were unarmed yet their huge number surprised the Quraish and so they weren’t allowed to enter Makkah. 
  • Instead, to resist their entry they sent a force under Khalid Bin Waleed and Ukrama Bin Jahl. 
  • The prophet did not want to fight so he diverted his route. 
  • The Muslims camped at a place called Hudaybia about 3 miles from Makkah. 
  • From here, the Prophet sent a messenger to the Quraish to tell them that they had not come to fight. 
  • But that messenger never returned. 
  • The prophet sent another messenger, who, too did not return and so eventually the prophet sent Hazrat Usman due to his high reputation among the Quraish. 
  • When the Quraish had detained Hazrat Usman for a while rumors spread that he had been killed. 
  • Therefore the prophet called his companions to take a pledge to fight and avenge the blood of Hazrat Usman. 
  • This was known as Bait-e-Rizwan. 
  • After this, Hazrat Usman returned, and negotiations started with the Quraish, eventually a treaty known as the treaty of hudaybia was devised,. Its terms were as follows:

  1. The Muslims would not enter Makkah this year, but would return the following year
  2. Makkans taking refuge in Medina would be handed back but medinites talking refuge in Makkah would not be returned
  3. There will be no war for 10 years
  4. Both makkans and Muslims would stay neutral if there was a war with another group
  5. Agreements could be made with other tribes.
  • Apparently the terms did not favor the Muslims and many of the leading companions like Hazrat Umar had objections, bur Allah himself says: “verily have we granted thee a manifest victory”.



Conquest of Makkah:


  • Two years after the treaty of Hudaybia, trouble arose. Banu Bakr, which was an ally of the Quraish, attacked Banu Khuza, an ally of Muslims. 
  • Quraish provided Banu Bakr with weapons and some Quraish also took part in fighting. 
  • As this was against the terms of treaty of hudaybia, so the leader of Banu Khuza went to the Prophet to seek justice. 
  • On hearing this, the prophet laid down 3 alternatives before the Quraish:

  1. Pay blood money to Banu Khuza
  2. Break alliance with Banu Bakr
  3. Dissolve treaty of Hudaybia

  • The Quraish chose the 3rd option and thus the treaty was dissolved. 
  • However, later they realized that they had made the wrong decision so their leader went to medina for negotiations. 
  • He guaranteed peace to the Prophet but the Prophet rejected his offer. 
  • In 630 A.D, the prophet with an army of 10,000 men marched towards Makkah; he kept his plans a secret so that news wouldn’t reach Makkah. 
  • On reaching Makkah, he told his men to light their torches to show the Quraish their strength. 
  • The Quraish were horrified to see such a large number of Muslims and Abu Sufyan, immediately came to the Muslim camp and embraced Islam. 
  • The prophet divided his army into 4 squadrons and told them to conquer different areas. 
  • He gave them special instructions to not shed innocent blood and not be the first one to fight. 
  • He also said that anybody who took refuge in his own home or Abu Sufyan’s home or Ka’abah was safe. 
  • Thus all the squadrons peacefully captured their areas although there was some trouble in the south where Khalid Bin Waleed’s squadron was attacked by the people of Banu Bakr. After this the Prophet entered the Kabah and purified it by breaking the idols. 
  • Hazrat Bilal then said the Azaan and the prophet performed tawaaf. 
  • The prophet then gathered all the people on the mount of safa and declared a general pardon for all except the 4 fiercest enemies of Islam, seeing the magnanimity of the prophet many pagans accepted Islam. 
  • The prophet stayed in Makkah for 20 days and after making administrative arrangements he went back to medina.



The Importance of his actions as examples for Muslim communities in their relations with other states:




Relation with the Quraish


  • In 624 A.D, the first encounter between the Muslims and Quraish took place, when the Quraish with an army of 1000 people marched to Medina. 
  • The Prophet, too, raised an army of only 313 people, and the battle began at Badr. 
  • Despite being heavily outnumbered the Muslims were victorious and the Quraish had to face a shameful defeat. 
  • This had negative impacts on their relations because the prestige of Quraish was hurt and many of them were taken as captives.
  • The very next year, the Quraish vowed to avenge their defeat at Badr and so with an army of 3000 men, marched towards Medina. 
  • When the Prophet learnt of this, he consulted his companions and it was decided that they would fight the enemy outside Medina, though the Prophet had contrary views.  
  • The Muslims were initially 1000 in number but were reduced to 700 when 300 hypocrites under the leadership of Abdullah bin Ubayy left the army. 
  • In the battlefield, at first the muslims were victorious, but when the archers appointed by the Prophet to guard a narrow pass left their post, the retreating Quraish attacked from the rear and turned the Muslim victory into a near defeat. 
  • This battle had adverse effects on the relations as hostility increased even further.
  • After their victory at Uhad, the Quraish were confident that they could now crush the Muslims. 
  • So, in 627 A.D they allied with various Jewish tribes and with an army of 10,000 men, proceeded towards Medina. 
  • The Muslims built a trench as a defensive measure upon the suggestion of Hazrat Salman Farsi. 
  • When the Quraish saw this trench, they were bewildered and since they could not cross the trench, they laid siege behind it. 
  • The siege lasted a month after which a storm blew away the Quraish camps and they were forced to flee. 
  • This event again hurt the prestige of Quraish and was proof that hostilities were at their peak.
  • In 628 A.D, the Prophet dreamt that he was entering the holy Ka’abah. 
  • So, he planned to go to Makkah for the lesser pilgrimage. In the month of Dhul-Qadah, 
  • the Prophet along with 1400 unarmed companions left for Makkah. 
  • Although they had no intention of waging war and were unarmed yet their huge number surprised the Quraish and so they weren’t allowed to enter Makkah. 
  • The Muslims camped at a place called Hudaybia about 3 miles from Makkah. 
  • From here, the Prophet sent 3 messengers to the Quraish to tell them that they had not come to fight. 
  • But those messengers never returned. 
  • Rumors spread that they had been killed. 
  • Therefore the prophet called his companions to take a pledge to fight and avenge the blood of their fellows. 
  • This was known as Bait-e-Rizwan. 
  • After this, Hazrat Usman returned, and negotiations started with the Quraish, eventually a treaty known as the treaty of hudaybia was devised,. Its terms were as follows:

  1. The Muslims would not enter Makkah this year, but would return the following year
  2. Makkans taking refuge in Medina would be handed back but medinites talking refuge in Makkah would not be returned
  3. There will be no war for 10 years
  4. Both makkans and Muslims would stay neutral if there was a war with another group
  5. Agreements could be made with other tribes.
  • This was a very positive development as it encouraged peace in the region.
  • Two years after the treaty of Hudaybia, trouble arose. 
  • Banu Bakr, which was an ally of the Quraish, attacked Banu Khuza, an ally of Muslims. Quraish provided Banu Bakr with weapons and some Quraish also took part in fighting. 
  • As this was against the terms of treaty of hudaybia, so the leader of Banu Khuza went to the Prophet to seek justice. 
  • On hearing this, the prophet laid down 3 alternatives before the Quraish:
  1. Pay blood money to Banu Khuza
  2. Break alliance with Banu Bakr
  3. Dissolve treaty of Hudaybia

  • The Quraish chose the 3rd option and thus the treaty was dissolved. 
  • This meant that cordial relations between Muslims and Quraish were short-lived and hostility once again prevailed.
  • In 630 A.D, the prophet with an army of 10,000 men marched towards Makkah. 
  • The Quraish were horrified to see such a large number of Muslims and Abu Sufyan, immediately came to the Muslim camp and embraced Islam. 
  • The prophet divided his army into 4 squadrons and told them to conquer different areas. 
  • He gave them special instructions to not shed innocent blood and not be the first one to fight. 
  • The prophet then gathered all the people on the mount of safa and declared a general pardon for all except the 4 fiercest enemies of Islam, seeing the magnanimity of the prophet many pagans accepted Islam. 
  • This event finally put an end to Quraish hostility as many Quraish accepted Islam.


Relations with Hypocrites:

  • There was another group living in Medina, who were apparently Muslims but not from the core of their hearts. 
  • They were called the Hypocrites. 
  • They showed enmity for Muslims at the Battle of Uhad, when 300 of them deserted the Muslim army, under the leadership of Abdullah Bin Ubbay, saying that since their suggestion of fighting inside Medina was not considered, they will not fight. 
  • Even during the Battle of Trench, they did not fight, saying that their homes were unsafe. They built a mosque named Al-Darrar where they used to conspire against Muslims. 
  • This was later demolished on the orders of the Prophet under divine instructions. The hypocrites also played a major role in the slander of Hazrat Aisha.


Relations with Jews:

  • In his attempt to achieve good relations with all the inhabitants of Medina (which were primarily Jews), the Prophet devised the Covenant of Medina. 
  • He drew a covenant with the people of the town, whether Muslims or non Muslims which clearly defined the duties and privileges of all the people. It said:
  1. All people of Medina would defend the city collectively
  2. There would be complete religious freedom for all
  3. If a conflict arises within the Medinites, the Prophet will be consulted for decision.
  • Initially, this charter was accepted by the Jewish tribes of Medina, namely Banu Qainuqa, Banu Qurayza and Banu Nazir. 
  • It acted as the constitution for Medina. However, gradually, the Jews distanced themselves from the Prophet. 
  • They started doubting his claims of Prophet Hood and mocked his revelations. 
  • This was why all tribes broke the covenant one after another and were exiled. 
  • The Table below shows the details of each tribe violating the covenant:




TRIBE
YEAR
REASON
HOW
FUTURE
Banu Qaynuqa
2 AH/ 624 AD
- Insulted and harmed the Prophet
 - Disgraced a Muslim woman
- A Jew and a Muslim were killed in fighting
Prophet laid siege to their fortress for 15 days, after which they surrendered unconditionally
Exiled from Medina, settled in Khyber.
Banu Nazir
4  AH/ 626 AD
- Plotted to murder the Prophet
- planned to rise against the Muslims at the instigation of Quraish
Prophet sent them a message to leave Medina within 10 days. They rejected it and shut themselves up in a fortress. Prophet laid siege and they surrendered in 2 weeks.
Exiled from Medina, settled at Khyber.
Banu Qurayza
5 AH / 627 AD
- helped enemies in Battle of Trench
Prophet surrounded their fortresses in a siege which lasted 1   month, after which they surrendered.
Accepted the decision of Saad Bin Muaz according to which men were slain, women and children taken as captives and their properties were distributed among the Muslims.


Sequence of events in 
Prophet Muhammad’s [SAW] life


Age of
Prophet [s]
Year
Year
[AD]
Events
0
Aam ul Feel
570
Birth of Prophet [s]
6
576
Death of Aamina[mother]
8
578
Death of Abdul Mutalib [grandfather]
12
582
First business trip to Syria
15
585
Battle of Fijjar
25
595
Marriage with Khadija [r]
35
605
Fixing of Black stone
40
1st year of prophet hood
610
Conferment of Prophet hood
43
3rd year
613
Open preaching of Islam
45
5th year
615
Hamza accepts Islam.
First migration to Abyssinia.
46
6th year
616
Umar accepts Islam
47 – 49
7th  -  9th
617 – 619
Boycott of Banu Hashim in Shi’b Abi Talib
50
10th
620
Boycott lifted.
Aam ul Huzn [Abu Talib and Khadija (R) died]
Visit to Taif.
51
11th
621
Al- Miraj
First pledge of Aqabah.
52
12th
622
Second pledge of Aqabah.
Hijra to Madinah.
53
1st Year of Hijrah
633
Establishment of First Islamic state.
Mwakhat
Treaty with Jews.
Masjid An Nabawi Constucted
Azan introduced.
54
2nd AH
624
Battle of Badr.
Siege of Banu Qainaqa.
Obligation of Zakat and fasting.
55
3rd AH
625
Battle of Uhud.
56
4th AH
626
Banu Nazir expelled from Madinah.
57
5th AH
627
Battle of Trench.
Banu Quraizah Punished according to Old Testament.
58
6th AH
628
Treaty of Al- Hudaibiyah.
59
7th AH
629
Letters to Rulers and Emperors
Khaybar Expedition.
Performance of Umrah.
60
8th AH
630
Battle of Mutah.
Conquest of Makkah.
Battle of Hunain.
61
9th AH
631
Tabuk expedition.
62
10th AH
632
Farewell Pilgrimage.
Year of Deputation.
63
11th AH
633
Illness and Death.

"Education is not preparation for life; education is life itself."
John Dewey